“I would like to attend your Spiritual Direction Training program, Marcella, but your program is located in Bethlehem, PA and I live in Georgia. I urge you to kindly consider creating a distance option for your program, that would allow others like myself who want a spiritual direction training program that incorporates the teachings and practices of a Wisdom Way of Knowing, to attend your program.”

MoravianSeminaryThis wasn’t exactly what I was expecting as I finished up my last days of the Claymont Movement Wisdom School in March of 2016. This request came from one of my Wisdom colleagues who had been on the Movements floor with me all week and had overheard me talking about incorporating some Wisdom practices into the Moravian Theological Seminary Spiritual Direction program that I co-direct with my colleague Barb Martell. The request landed deep and wide within; a call bell of stillness and alertness ensued. I was intrigued. I responded to her request “Wow, I have not thought of creating a Wisdom infused distance option for our Spiritual Direction training program. Let me take this into my prayer, discuss it with my co director and the seminary, and get back to you!”

This ‘out of the blue request’ landed in my prayer with great energy. I shared it with my co-director, who responded with openness and steadied co-listening. I put feelers out within the Wisdom network to see if others had interest in a Wisdom infused Spiritual Direction program. Within two months three additional people responded with a strong YES! Building on our existing Spiritual Direction program, already vetted and approved, we proposed adding a distance component in line with our seminary’s strategic goals, with a Wisdom school rhythm retreat each semester. A step of faith the whole way, doors kept opening. Timing for the Seminary appeared right as the school was currently increasing distance learning technologies, so were well equipped with electronic platforms, large screens and classroom cameras. Faculty approval of this one-year distance Wisdom infused Intensive Spiritual Direction offering was unanimous. This program, designed for those already trained in companioning others (counselors, those contemplatively trained, etc), includes 10 graduate credits in courses such as the Art & Practice of Spiritual Direction, Discernment, and Group Spiritual Direction, each semester offering one weekly distance class and one class anchored in an ‘in person’ Wisdom school retreat in Bethlehem, PA. Our first cohort of distance Wisdom infused Spiritual Direction training at Moravian was offered in 2017-2018.

Spiritual Direction Cohort
(Spiritual Direction cohort: Front row: Marcella Kraybill-Greggo (Program co-director) 4th in from the left, Barb Martell (Program co-director) 5th in; Wisdom participants: Lisa Persons 6th in, Heather Ruse 7th in & Jeanine Siler Jones in back row middle).

The following three reflections are shared by members of the Wisdom community who participated in Moravian’s first distance Wisdom infused Spiritual Direction program.

Heather Ruce: I was at the Claymont Movement Wisdom School when Marcella was asked to consider beginning the one-year intensive program that would incorporate teachings from the Wisdom tradition. I had been a spiritual director for several years and had the desire to pursue a program but had not found one that resonated with what I was looking for. Because of my background in the Wisdom work with Cynthia since 2012, as well as training as a therapist and in a body-based mindfulness approach to trauma, I wanted a program that was holistic and would be based on three-centered knowing. When Marcella told me about the idea of the one- year intensive that would have a focus in Wisdom, I wondered if this may be the program and the time to pursue it.

As I listened from within, I decided to say yes and take this next step to further confirm my vocational call as a spiritual companion and to continue the integration of Wisdom as the basis of this call. Our first day of class began with a pause of silence, Logion 2 from the Gospel of Thomas, and a body prayer. I immediately felt at home. We gathered over Zoom, joining one another from England, Canada, and various time zones in the US. With Teilhard’s notion of the ‘noosphere’ in mind, our distance cohort opened ourselves to the opportunity to learn how to lean into our connection that exists beyond physical space and time. It was an adjustment at first, but we settled in quickly and in an unexpected way. Gathering together from our own homes brought with it a special sense of intimacy and safety.

A three-centered thread ran through the whole program including our two ‘intensive’ retreats which followed the Wisdom School rhythm. It was encouraging to see and experience the Benedictine rhythm applied in another context. This form provided a depth of connection to the tradition and practice of spiritual direction. It also allowed for our cohort to connect to one another with more of Ourselves.

Jeanine Siler Jones: For years I have considered further training in Spiritual Direction. I have a full-time therapy practice in Asheville, NC and have integrated my 9 years of Wisdom work with Cynthia into my professional life on my own. I was drawn to this program at Moravian Seminary because it would be a community where I could give attention to the ‘braiding’ of my call as a Therapist, a Wisdom seeker and a Spiritual Director. My “yes” felt strong and clear from the beginning.

Completely unknown to me at the time of this clear yes was the deep and personal need I would bring to this Spiritual Direction learning community. Just one week into our first summer course, in early June of 2017, my brother died suddenly. My heart was broken open. With this cohort, I received profound care which became integral to my spiritual direction learning. The fact that this was a distance learning cohort was surprisingly no deterrent to our attentive and caring presence with one another as a learning community.

When we gathered in person for our two on site retreats, the Wisdom School container was familiar and grounding. My body knew the way. The rhythm of prayer and work with two contemplative sits each day, chanting, movement and embracing the Great Silence at the end of the day all combined to hold and deepen the learning for me. Whatever we were learning with our minds, we practiced and experienced with our bodies and hearts. So, the Centering Prayer informed the silence we practiced in both individual and group spiritual direction. The chanting opened channels of vibration and connection with God and one another and cultivated deep listening. The body prayers, ‘finding our feet’ and noticing gesture allowed the knowing to amplify, move and ground.

This wisdom infused Spiritual Direction program gave me a body of material, seasoned teachers and supervisors, and a wholehearted cohort to mentor me into a profound year of integration.

Lisa Persons: After practicing as a spiritual director for several years and using Wisdom work in an intuitive way, I was seeking the right certificate program to deepen and broaden my knowledge and practice base. Moravian Seminary’s program offered a wonderful way to integrate the golden thread of Wisdom I had been following since 1999 when I attended a Singing the Psalms Benedictine Wisdom School with Cynthia Bourgeault.

Moravian Seminary’s program helped me more deeply weave the Wisdom thread into my work with individuals and groups. Throughout the coursework and practicum we were invited to integrate the wisdom of the body and to listen to how what we read and heard “landed in our bodies”. This was so helpful in deepening my awareness of the moving center of knowing. Practicing in community truly helped me listen with “more of me”, deeply grounding the practice of spiritual direction and life in the body.

Another wisdom dimension that was developed in this program was the way in which Group Spiritual Direction is a container for “midwifing” Third Force. As we practiced speaking, listening with all three centers of knowing and reflecting back to one another threads and images that we noticed, we were all developing an “alert flexible presence that can hold the tension of opposites.” Law of Three images emerged organically in my Group Spiritual Direction group without me every teaching about the Law of Three. For example, in one session as we reflected on the effort and friction that go into discernment and navigation of relationships, the image of the friction of churning milk yielding sweet butter bubbled up. Later I reflected on this image as a Law of Three dynamic: milk, human energy, a churn; butter was the sweet new arising.

This program offered a group process of sharing and listening that was a dance, a divine exchange, an embodied practice of trust in the slow work of God, Who can and will use all on behalf of wisdom in beautiful and unexpected ways.

The next Intensive Spiritual Direction Training begins June 2019. If you are interested in learning more about this Wisdom infused Spiritual Direction Training Program please contact Marcella at Kraybill-Greggom@moravian.edu and see the following link: https://www.moravianseminary.edu/academics/certificate/spiritual-direction-intensive

Wisdom Infused
View of the Spiritual Direction cohort on ZOOM at the end of a class, as a ‘blessing of the hands’ was offered to one another.


GlobeYesterday morning a desire ‘arose’ from among our Wisdom community to have a ‘communal time of prayer’ on behalf of our world. Our local (Bethlehem) Wisdom member said: “I was drawn back to the powerful experience many of us had when you, Marcella, were up in Maine (in Feb) and we all ‘sat together’; different places but at the same time. Would it be possible for as many of the wisdom community as possible to pick a day and time to have a giant sit weekly? I feel that the light that would generate could only help”.

This resonated deeply within me, as what catapulted through me over the weekend was “FOR THIS…we were asked to go to Stonington for that prayer weekend in February” (see “Conscious Circle” Ingathering). THIS WAS WHAT WE WERE PRAYING ‘on behalf of’, what we were preparing for. The ‘sensation’ of this recognition was so strong Sunday night, it literally felt like I was being pulled out of bed, onto my knees on behalf of our world.

Then yesterday afternoon I met with one of my Law of Three midwife groups (see “To Midwife Third Force”: Creating Law of Three Midwife Groups) to be reminded that Charlottesville is the HOME TOWN of one of our group members, a UCC Clergy woman, who has been a chaplain at a Quaker school there for years. She aches for her community and is filled with grief, anger… and gratitude for all those working so hard to transform hate and show love. She shared, “It is like watching my family in crisis on TV”.

Truly the situation in Charlottesville is both devastating and ‘quieting’…

In RESPONSE, the suggestion is being raised for a ‘VIRTUAL’ sit on behalf of our world…on Tuesday mornings. A sit that we all do in our homes …”collectively”. I personally can commit to 9:00- 9:30 EST (6am PST)…others may need a bit earlier or a bit later. No worries…it is ‘all one prayer’. We will gather like this on Tuesdays until it no longer feels ‘needed’ in the same way.

Our work ‘in the realms’ is needed. OUR time is at hand…the ‘work of Wisdom’ is desperately needed…as ‘denying forces’ occur, Wisdom is at the ready…3rd force is needed… we have been prepared.


Helpful links from Marcella

Transforming the Heart of Suffering, an article on Tonglen, a form of prayer for times like these.

Become a Whole World, Darlene Franz’s Wisdom Chant that has been singing in me all week.

Please join us today…and on future Tuesdays. AND let us know if you are ‘in’!

Marcella Kraybill-Greggo attended her first full Wisdom School in the fall of 2014 at the Claymont Society in West Virginia. Cynthia Bourgeault offered a week long retreat, “Gurdjieff for Christian Contemplatives: An Intensive Exploration of the Holy Trinity and the Law of Three“. As the date approached, Marcella was receiving guidance in her dreams to become more grounded physically. At Claymont, with its emphasis on the Gurdjieff movements, study would include daily experience in the moving center, as well as in the feeling and intellectual centers.

Cynthia says that an essential fruit of contemplative practice is the ever widening capacity to midwife third force. Speaking to the potential of conscious attention, she repeated a concept during the retreat which intrigued Marcella; that third force is more midwifed than taught.

The archetype of ‘midwifing’ (as being with, to bring into being or bring to birth) is central to the spiritual direction Marcella both teaches and practices. In her field, ‘midwifing’ refers to a way to both witness and stay the course while a person does their work, offering markers, reminding people of what they already know, while holding an awareness of how Spirit can work.

This meeting of spiritual direction and the Wisdom work within Marcella was deepened through Cynthia’s teaching and the Gurdjieff movements led by Deborah Rose Longo. “Midwifing third force” resonated as an invitation to explore, a call to action. “Midwifing is the sea I’ve been swimming in,” according to Marcella. For over a decade, she has been teaching Group Spiritual Direction and Counseling Group Theory and Dynamics. This call fell on prepared and fertile soil. The template of a Law of Three Midwife Group took shape, a place to begin. Congruent with the triune, three people would provide the dynamism necessary for each group.

“The Law of Three”, coined by Gurdjieff, is also known as “the Law of World Creation”. It refers to his assertion that every phenomena, each “new arising”, comes into being through the interaction of three distinct lines of action. The first is affirming or active force; the second denying or passive force; and third force is reconciling or neutralizing. How do we bring our conscious attention to these forces at work in life? How do we listen to each line of action and play with these energetic forces? How do we recognize new arisings?

WaveCynthia says, “Just as it takes three strands of hair to make a braid, it takes three individual lines of action to make a new arising. Until this third term enters, the two forces remain at impasse.” These three lines of action are free of moral judgment, they are each neither “good” or “bad”. She continues, “third force, or ‘reconciling’, is not a synonym for ‘grace’…it can show up as a trickster as often as it shows up as a healer. It’s simply whatever breaks up the logjam and gets things moving again.” What helps us set aside our preferences, our attachments to outcome, our judgments? Allow for the movement beyond impasse? For potent, unexpected new arising?

There is surprise and challenge inherent in working with the Law of Three in both the inner life and the outer world. Cynthia emphasizes, “in the Law of Three and the Law of Seven, the eye of the needle is the same: conscious attention. If we’re stuck in duality, negativity, urgency, identification, or self-importance, we miss the window of opportunity for third force…”

Once home from the 2014 Wisdom School, Marcella turned to two retreatants, and to two spiritual directors, with the same invitation. “I’m not sure what we will be doing, but Cynthia says the Law of Three is more ‘midwifed than taught’ and that we are often ‘third force blind’ in our own lives. She says we need others to help midwife what is truly wanting to be born. I want to learn what it means to help midwife this process in another…to aid in their ‘arising’…and, I need help in midwifing what is happening within my own life, and what is occurring within me!”

The two groups committed to work for six months and then assess. Each met once a month for two hours. This form has worked for two and a half years, and is available to all who are interested. The simple guidelines for each session include a ten-minute informal check-in followed by each person speaking for ten- fifteen minutes about something occurring in their lives. This may be a decision being discerned, an encounter of significance (positive or negative), a dream, a work scenario. Anything is ‘grist for the Law of Three mill’. Each person’s sharing is followed by a ten – fifteen period of group interaction, consisting of questions, wonderings, curiosities about what might be denying, affirming, and reconciling in the scenario shared. Always there’s a deep listening for ‘what might want to be birthed here’; how might the ‘necessary tension’ of the denying and affirming forces be brought into relationship in a ‘whole new playing field’. Each person has a turn for sharing and exploration.

One Law of Three group worked online over ooVoo (similar to skype), inquiring into how the Law of Three was manifesting in their individual lives, noticing affirming and denying at work, experimenting with how they could be reversed, curious rather than rigid. Taking up the notion ‘third force blind’, they opened to one another.

“We shared our lives and invited our Wisdom friends to listen through the lens of the Law of Three. We were able to offer each other new ideas and perspectives, evoking a seeing of potential third force that we had not been able to see reflecting individually on our own lives.” They witnessed how third force is indeed a ‘line of action’ and reconciling force is indeed midwifed. Playing with series of triads was “gorgeously helpful;” watching new arisings become part of the next evolutions. Inevitably, “each member began noticing clarity and ease, depth and inner stability, and freedom to stay present in the midst of discomfort. Held in a ‘Law of Three community’, each member gained strength, inner fortitude. A deep collective gratitude arose. While being ‘midwifed’, the ability to notice and ‘midwife third force’ in our own life also grew. Things happened quickly; clarity became more predictably accessible.”

Wisdom AmmaIn the other Law of Three group, Marcella and two other spiritual directors (one 79, another 81) met in person. These two women, steeped in Wisdom study and practice, Marcella came to consider her ‘Wisdom Ammas’. “We met month after month, discussing our lives in the light of the Law of Three. With the Holy Trinity book in one hand and a pad and paper to draw triangles in the other, we eventually felt drawn to review our entire life story through that dynamism.”

Working reflectively, they began meeting weekly to chart significant events over a lifetime in relationship, inner work, health and jobs. “Looking at life over time, we noted how in each of our lives, the dynamism of one triad inevitably birthed the next triad. How constriction in our lives, denying force, played along with our heart’s desire, the forward movement of affirming force. We became conscious of what eventually clarified and came into being to ‘reconcile’ the tensions.” They noticed that the interplay of the three lines of action “catapulted us into new ways of being in the world, new spiritual clarities, new jobs, and new relationships.”

“These ‘new arisings’ were stunning in their beauty, but only as seen in the rear view mirror. It was a truly remarkable undertaking. To literally sit on the floor at the feet of these two deeply spiritual women, mapping out on big poster paper the triads of their lives, noticing the dynamism that unfolded over their seventy-plus years. It was miraculous and incredibly enlightening.”

“They became my teachers, the embodiment of the Law of Three. As they shared their ‘unfolding journeys into God’, they reflected on how they had to come to repeated points of surrender time after time in their lives, in order to be launched into ‘a new arising’…which was plain as day in hindsight!”

 Marcella has begun a number of other groups, each finding its own dynamism. For example, Law of Three Midwife Groups became an integral part of the Wisdom Practices Circle at Moravian Seminary last year. In addition to their monthly day-long Wisdom gathering, students meet monthly in triads for two hours, with Marcella as facilitator and scribe, charting out the Law of Three triangles as the groups share.

Through this undertaking “our class is becoming adept at envisioning our lives through the lens of the Law of Three, noting how affirming and denying forces exist, beginning to track the workings of third force and, notably, beginning to recognize the ‘sensation’ of third force as it happens. The key to learning this, and what I offer my students, is how to ‘listen’ for the dynamism of the Law of Three ‘in sensation.’ Each force – denying, affirming, reconciling, and each new arising – has a distinct embodied ‘sensation’. As we get to know these lines of action ‘in sensation’, we can recognize them anywhere and with greater ease. The heft of this embodiment is created as the dynamism of the three lines of action is revealed; tuning into the physical sensation of each line of action, opens new perceptive capacities in our body, in the moving center. Students are experiencing ‘what it’s like to midwife third force’ both in our small groups as we share particulars of our lives, and in each of their own individual life spaces and relationships.”

The miracle for Marcella is, “you can’t make this stuff up.” A key she has witnessed in this group work is how, “as Maurice Nicoll teaches, life unfolds and circumstances provide exactly what we need for our next arising.” She has discovered that working with the Law of Three cultivates increased availability for readiness. To work with, rather than against, what is happening in our lives. To give footing and grounding to manifest what is waiting to be born, to have greater clarity with greater ease.

Rublev TrinityThe possibilities for this work are manifold, and Marcella is willing to help groups get started, acting as a consult or reference point, joining a group of three to facilitate for a session or two if desired. Awestruck by the amount of movement happening, she recognizes that something is crystalizing differently as a result. As a member of one of Marcella’s Law of Three groups notes, “Seems to me that our third force group IS an organization at a higher level, that has the power to manifest what none of us could do individually, as Teilhard envisioned.” To become more conscious and learn to wield third force truly is an exercise that builds trust in the wisdom that nothing is ever lost.

If you are interested in creating a Law of Three Midwife Group with Marcella’s help, you may contact her through “Leave a Comment” below. More can be found about Marcella on the Seedlings page, where you may read about her Wisdom post-holding at Moravian Theological Seminary.

Marcella is leading a five day Wisdom Way of Knowing Wisdom School July 23 – 28, 2017 where she welcomes seekers into the expansive teachings from The Wisdom Way of Knowing by Cynthia Bourgeault. The retreat will include select videos of Cynthia, filmed at an Introductory Wisdom School. Through the power of technology, participants will receive Cynthia’s teaching and transmission. For more information, see the Events page.

The Cynthia Bourgeault quotes above are from her 2017 Lenten Spirituality & Practice course: Becoming Truly Human: Gurdjieff’s Obligonian Strivings with Cynthia Bourgeault.


An invitation to join in spirit together on January 20, 2017.

You are invited to participate as friends of Wisdom gather for a moment of silence at noon on January 20 as Donald J. Trump is sworn into office as President of the United States.

This practice has been envisioned as “a pause to create a ‘dwelling place for Wisdom’ on behalf of our nation, and a prayer from our hearts for our world.”

“As we learn to open ourselves deeply to this mysterious Source, help will always come, for the Source ‘leans and harkens towards us’ with a tenderness of love that is both the medium and the message.”
~ Cynthia Bourgeault

In addition to this moment of silence, and in response to Cynthia’s timely call for the “deep practice” of “collecting our hearts so as to be more directly and acutely in alignment” with Wisdom, Marcella Kraybill-Greggo has created a template for a two to two and a half hour Community Gathering on January 20, 2017. You are invited to work with this outline (printed below with links to resources) individually and collectively in gatherings on Inauguration Day.Candles

Cynthia’s impulse with this call was to follow Wisdom’s way and “to put the heart out there and see how it seeds itself.” This program was born through the creative weaving of Wisdom. As Marcella contemplated her sense of what was being called for, what came to her was a deep recognition of the criticalness ‘of such a time as this’ for us as contemplatives to ‘prepare our nervous systems’, to hunker down into spiritual practices deeper than ever before. The call was to stabilize, to more fully ingrain the practice of kenosis, and to ‘make more space for Wisdom’ to make her dwelling within and among us.

Also unfolding in Marcella’s spirit was the invitation to find ways to dedicate these times, and the energy of constriction, diminishment and suffering, to a cause and ‘a higher order’. And, to do this as a means of serving Wisdom’s evolutionary consciousness that is breaking open in our world, leading us (in Cynthia’s words) toward a single mystical body encompassing All, to Unity.

Marcella brought this understanding to her work with students, into her Law of Three groups, and continued to pray and listen, to wait, to dig down under, both in the horizontal and in the vertical.

LabyrinthMarcella’s inner work, the call of the times, and the group work with her students collectively midwifed the below template. In a teaching about ‘holding the post’, Cynthia spoke of the humbling journey as a wisdom leader, knowing that what happens is dependent on what the group brings, as well as what the leader brings. That ‘alert, supple and humble’ postholding makes space for the electricity and the ‘graced movement’ that can come when the conditions are right. These words, key to Marcella’s Wisdom work, are embedded in the process that gave birth to this program.

Marcella invites us to find what may be calling to each of us, what we want to dedicate our practice to in these immediate times. To take Wisdom practice into our day, attend to the life of sensation in the body, and consciously name what we dedicate the vitality of those arising sensations to; for her, right now, it is to Wisdom’s unfolding.

Marcella’s offering is to take this outline into our own heart’s process and let it evolve and connect. Join us, as many friends of Wisdom convene in the silence at noon EST, and gather in groups, and individually, with shared intent on Friday, January 20th.

Wisdom Way of Knowing Community Gathering Program for Inauguration Day, January 20, 2017

3:00 – 3:30 Welcome and Centering

Gospel of Thomas Reading: Logion 33
Body Prayer
Chant “Love Says…”
20 min Centering Prayer

3:30 – 3:50 Cynthia Teaching & Debrief (10 min teaching)

3:50 – 4:45 Stations of Wisdom – Explanation and Experience

Labyrinth (walking or finger labyrinth)
Anointing for the Journey (Mary Magdalene)
WISDOM POST station (placing your symbolic wisdom post in sand – a tall candle or stick)
Wisdom Stations for Contemplation and Prayer
(with wisdom quotes and contemplative questions for pondering…at each of these 4 stations)

for Courage
for Clarity
for Peace/Equanimity
for Solidarity /Community

4:45 – 5:00 Elm Dance

5:00- 5:10 Prayer of St Frances (small group body prayer)

5:15 – 5:25 Mass on the World

5:25 – 5:30 Benediction

As we learn to open ourselves deeply to this mysterious Source, help will always come, for the Source “leans and harkens towards us” with a tenderness of love that is both the medium and the message. – CB


Cynthia says: And so, Contemplatives, “Allons! ” Let us go forward. There is work to be done; prayer, joy, courage, and strength are deeply needed. And we do know the way there. This is Wisdom’s hour.

MarcellaMarcella is Co-director of the Spiritual Direction Graduate Certificate Program at Moravian Theological Seminary as well as the Clinical Director for Moravian’s MA in Clinical Counseling. Marcella holds a Masters in Social Work along with a certificate in Spiritual Direction.

She is featured on the Seedlings page as an emerging Wisdom teacher and postholder, where you may go to read more of her story.


These links below offer visual and written thoughts to work with for the Prayer of Gesture and Movement developed by Deborah Welsh, in partnership with Bill Redfield and Lois Barton. The links are provided by WisdomWayofKnowing.org.
Link to audio visual of Body Prayer
Link to explanation of the Body Prayer

The chant “Love Says”, created by Kristy Christian Petrow, a wisdom student in Marcella’s class at Moravian Seminary.

Link to suggested Cynthia teaching, great teaching, not great video quality

This is an example of a handout “A Pause for ..Courage..” created for the Courage Station of Wisdom by students in Marcella’s Wisdom group at Moravian Seminary, Kim Denyes and Janet Bickford. Please feel free to create your own of the other Stations of Wisdom if desired, or contact Marcella for more information.

These links are from Joanna Macy’s website, who worked extensively with the Elm Dance. Resources include instruction, music, translation and much more.
Link to Elm Dance music
Link to instructions for Elm Dance

Words and movements (video) for the Saint Francis Prayer as used with movements found in the visual, created by Kathryn Sparks, and danced by Sarah Carlson, dance instructor and sacred movement instructor for Marcella’s Wisdom Schools at Moravian Seminary.

Mass on the World Reading, A Liturgical Version by Cynthia Bourgeault. Adapted from the Offertory of Teilhard’s “Mass on the World” (The Heart of Matter, 119-121) as excerpted by Ursula King (in Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Selected Readings, 80-81)

Link to Mass on the World music, Peter Kater’s “Essence”, suggested by Cynthia as an excellent companion to the reading.